Latvian (latviešu valoda)
Latvian is a Baltic language related to Lithuanian and Old Prussian with about 1.4 million speakers in Latvia. There are also Latvian speakers in the USA, Russia, Australia, Canada, Germany, the UK, Sweden, Lithuania, Ukraine, Estonia, Brazil and Belarus.
The first known example of written Latvian dates from 1530 and was a translation of a hymn by Nikolaus Ramm, a German pastor. The first publication to be printed in Latvian was a catechism which appeared in 1585. The first Latvian dictionary, Lettus, was compiled by Georg Mancelius in 1638. The German monks who wrote these texts used a version of the the Fractur alphabet adapted from German which was ill suited to the Latvian language.
A modified version of the Latin alphabet devised by the linguists Kārlis Mīlenbahs and Jānis Endzelīns in 1908, and gradually replaced the old version.